I already have enough material for three complete linkspams, so watch for those later this week beginning with part one, sustainability news from Michigan's research universities, later tonight. I also have notes for at least four more Swim entries, not counting any new developments in Oak Park's war on Julie Bass's plants and animals."Tomorrow" was Monday. It's now Thursday. It's time for part one of the linkspam.
Very little commentary today, as I'm swimming against the stream of the heat, my own exhaustion, and lots of other work that I need to attend to.
University of Michigan: World Population Day: Will 7 billion people create a crisis?
July 11, 2011
ANN ARBOR, Mich.—World population will reach 7 billion this year, prompting new concerns about whether the world will soon face a major population crisis.
"In spite of 50 years of the fastest population growth on record, the world has done remarkably well in producing enough food and reducing poverty," said University of Michigan economist David Lam.
Lam is a professor of economics and a research professor at the U-M Institute for Social Research. He delivered the presidential address, titled "How the World Survived the Population Bomb: Lessons from 50 Years of Exceptional Demographic History," at the annual meeting of the Population Association of America earlier this year.
In 1968, when Paul Ehrlich's book, "The Population Bomb," triggered alarm about the impact of a rapidly growing world population, growth rates were about 2 percent and world population doubled in the 39 years between 1960 and 1999.
According to Lam, that is something that never happened before and will never happen again.
University of Michigan: U-M will launch Planet Blue Ambassador program this fall
July 12, 2011
ANN ARBOR, Mich.—Students won't be the only ones in the classroom this fall, as a unique pilot program involving University of Michigan students and staff kicks off as part of the university's commitment to sustainability.
Through a collaboration involving the Graham Sustainability Institute, University Housing, the Office of Campus Sustainability, the Voices of the Staff Environmental Stewardship Team and the Student Sustainability Initiative, a new seminar-based program will provide the necessary skills and training for "Planet Blue Ambassadors," while exploring similarities and differences between student and staff experiences. Planet Blue Ambassadors will model and teach sustainability practices and serve as "eco-reps" to the U-M community. The ultimate program goal is to create a culture of sustainability across all U-M units.
"This is an opportunity to connect students from diverse academic backgrounds with members of the U-M faculty and staff by providing an action-based learning experience," said Mike Shriberg, education director for the Graham Institute and a lecturer in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts (LSA). "The primary goal is to teach best practices so that students and staff can encourage environmentally responsible behaviors both in the residence halls and in organizational units throughout campus."
The beauty and peacefulness of the University of Michigan's Diag derive in large part from its trees. Many were planted as long ago as the Civil War, some just last week. Here's a glimpse at a spot we love through the generations.
Norm Lownds, curator of the Michigan 4-H Children's Garden, talks about the different types of interactivity that happen in the garden.Michigan State University: MSU to host youth garden symposium
July 14, 2011
EAST LANSING, Mich. — Michigan State University will host the 19th annual National Children and Youth Garden Symposium July 21-23.
The conference, which is sponsored by the American Horticultural Society, includes a number of keynote speakers and about 50 educational lectures, workshops and learning stations.
The educational sessions include:
"From Schoolyard to Backyard"
"Helpful Hints from Horticultural Therapy"
"Green Corps: Sustainable Youth and Urban Agriculture"
"Digging Into Worm Composting"
"Butterfly Gardening Using Native Plants"
Michigan State University: MSU’s Mott Group to host six FoodCorps members
July 14, 2011
Thanks to a recent grant from the Corporation for National and Community Service, the C.S. Mott Group for Sustainable Food Systems at Michigan State University will help increase vulnerable children's knowledge of, engagement with and access to healthy food.
The C.S. Mott Group will aid six of Michigan's FoodCorps members in conducting nutrition education, building and tending school gardens and expanding farm-to-cafeteria sourcing of healthy food at the Michigan Land Use Institute, YMCA of Greater Grand Rapids, Food System Economic Partnership and the Crim Fitness Foundation.
Environment, including science and technology
University of Michigan: U-M researchers aim to improve vehicle safety for kids
July 12, 2011
ANN ARBOR, Mich.—Researchers at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute hope to make passenger cars and trucks safer for children in crashes—the leading cause of death for kids.
UMTRI researchers will measure how children sit in car seats and how safety belts fit them. The study, which runs through August, will be used to improve the design of car seats and restraints.
University of Michigan: Solar car Quantum to tour Michigan in the ultimate road test
July 12, 2011
ANN ARBOR, Mich.—The national champion solar car team will soon put its 2011 car and crew to the toughest test before the October World Solar Challenge. On Saturday (July l6), the University of Michigan team will embark on a 1,000-mile, four-day "mock race" that will ring the state's Lower Peninsula.
You can follow along online. Michigan Engineering will travel with the team, posting videos and updates on Facebook and Twitter, as well as on Tumblr at http://michiganengineering.tumblr.com. The Solar Car team will also blog, tweet and post videos at http://solarcar.engin.umich.edu/category/blog.
The Quantum, which is street legal, will cruise along mostly two-lane roads at an expected average of 40-50 mph (past Michigan solar cars can break 100 mph, but the team doesn't test for speed until after the World Solar Challenge). Five stops in St. Joseph, Ludington, Traverse City, Mackinaw City and Tawas City will simulate the mandatory control stops along the Australian race route. At these check points, the team will rest, change drivers and charge up. For details about the dates and times the team will be at each stop, check the website at http://solarcar.engin.umich.edu/news.
"Mock race is a major milestone for us," said Rachel Kramer, project manager and senior neuroscience student. "We'll be on the open roads navigating and dealing with other traffic while making real-time race strategy decisions."
Michigan State University: MSU to host world’s leading authorities on gene regulation
July 13, 2011
MSU will host an international conference on gene regulation July 22-24. Titled Summer Symposium on Transcriptional Dynamics, Evolution and Systems Biology, the conference is an opportunity to share ideas among scientists and to feature gene expression research at MSU.
The conference stresses the three major ways that computational and quantitative biology and modeling interface with RNA synthesis control.
Michigan State University: Perfecting the meat of the potato
July 11, 2011
EAST LANSING, Mich. — By honing in on the mysterious potato genome and its tuber – its edible portion – researchers are unveiling the secrets of the world’s most-important nongrain food crop.
Robin Buell, Michigan State University plant biologist, is part of an international research team that is mapping the genome of the potato. In the current issue of Nature, the team revealed that it accomplished its goal, thus quickly closing the gap on improving the food source’s elusive genome.
The potato is a member of the Solanaceae, an economically important family that includes tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, petunia and tobacco. Despite the importance of tubers, the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms of how they grow and reproduce remained elusive – until now, Buell said.
“This is the first plant with a tuber to be sequenced,” she said. “It will still take researchers awhile to use the genome information to improve its agronomic traits, such as improved quality, yield, drought tolerance and disease resistance. But our most-recent research will accelerate efforts on improving potato varieties and help close the gap in bringing a better potato to the farmer.”
Simplified landscapes, with lots of cropland and little natural habitat, promote crop pest problems and increased use of insecticides.
Illustration: courtesy Tim Meehan, UW-Madison
Michigan State University: Landscape change leads to increased insecticide use in the Midwest
July 13, 2011
EAST LANSING, Mich. — The continued growth of cropland and loss of natural habitat have increasingly simplified agricultural landscapes in the Midwest. Having a single, dominant crop rather than a variety of wild plants is associated with increased crop pest abundance and insecticide use, consequences that could be tempered by perennial bioenergy crops.
While the relationship between landscape simplification, crop pest pressure and insecticide use has been suggested before, it has not been well supported by research until now. The study was published by the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, a partnership between the University of Wisconsin and Michigan State University, and was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Although simplification of agricultural landscapes is likely to continue, the research suggests that the planting of perennial bioenergy crops – like switchgrass and mixed prairie – can offset some negative effects, said Doug Landis, MSU entomologist and landscape ecologist.
"Perennial crops provide year-round habitat for beneficial insects, birds and other wildlife, and are critical for buffering streams and rivers from soil erosion and preventing nutrient and pesticide pollution," he said.
Michigan State University: DuPont’s Imprelis could be turning evergreens brown
July 15, 2011
EAST LANSING, Mich. — Browning shoots and needles, twisting and stunted shoots – especially near the tops of evergreen trees and shrubs – are signs that plants may have injuries associated with the herbicide Imprelis, according to a Michigan State University researcher.
“Unlike most conifer insect and disease problems, suspected Imprelis damage occurs rapidly – usually within two to three weeks of application,” said Bert Cregg, associate professor of horticulture and forestry and MSU Extension specialist. “The most commonly affected trees are Norway spruce, Colorado blue spruce and eastern white pine. Other conifers and some hardwood trees also may be affected.”
Imprelis, a relatively new herbicide developed by DuPont, is intended for use by lawn care professionals. It appears trees may be taking up Imprelis that has been applied to turf near the tree’s drip line. Affected trees are showing symptoms commonly associated with herbicide injury.
University of Michigan: Large human study links phthalates, BPA and thyroid hormone levels
July 11, 2011
ANN ARBOR, Mich.—A link between chemicals called phthalates and thyroid hormone levels was confirmed by the University of Michigan in the first large-scale and nationally representative study of phthalates and BPA in relation to thyroid function in humans.
The U-M School of Public Health study also reported suggestive findings consistent with a previously reported link between a chemical called bisphenol-A and thyroid hormone levels. BPA is best known for its use in certain plastic water bottles and in the linings of canned foods.
Researchers used publicly available data from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to compare urine metabolites and serum thyroid measures from 1,346 adults and 329 adolescents. Generally speaking, greater concentrations of urinary phthalate metabolites and BPA were associated with greater impacts on serum thyroid measures, said John Meeker, assistant professor at U-M SPH and lead study author.
Specifically, researchers found an inverse relationship between urinary markers of exposure and thyroid hormone levels, meaning as urinary metabolite concentrations increased, serum levels of certain thyroid hormone levels decreased.
University of Michigan: Peregrine Falcons make home on University of Michigan hospital roof
Rescued baby falcon presents naming opportunity for kids at U-M C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital
July 12, 2011
A two-month-old peregrine falcon chick was recently reunited with her parents in their nest on the roof of University Hospital at the University of Michigan Health System.
She had been in the care of the Michigan Department of Natural Resources after she attempted to fly and was unable to get back up to the nest.
The young falcon is one of three chicks that hatched in a nesting box built by a local Eagle Scout and U-M staff. Peregrines are protected as an endangered species under state law.
Although a breeding pair of peregrine falcons has nested on U-M’s campus for several years, these are the first known hatchlings.
University of Michigan: Elderly patients can safely undergo treatments for severe circulation disease
Statewide study shows interventions are successful in the elderly despite more severe peripheral arterial disease
July 11, 2011
ANN ARBOR, Mich. – A new study led by the University of Michigan Cardiovascular Center shows that it is safe for the elderly to undergo minimally invasive procedures to treat a common circulation problem.
Like clogged arteries in the heart, a build-up of plaque can affect circulation in the legs and limit the ability to exercise or even walk and sometimes lead to amputation.
The restricted blood flow is known as peripheral arterial disease, or PAD, and more than 4 million American adults, nearly 15 percent of those over age 70, have the vascular disease.
U-M researchers and colleagues in the Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium showed elderly patients were no more likely than younger patients to suffer major complications or deaths after endovascular procedures such as angioplasty or stents to restore blood flow in the lower extremities.
Wayne State University: Severity of spinal cord injury in adults has no impact on how they rate their health, Wayne State University research finds
July 11, 2011
DETROIT - Severity of spinal cord injury in adults is not related to how they rate their health, Wayne State University researchers have found.
In a study of self-rated health (SRH) published this month in the Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, Cathy Lysack, Ph.D., deputy director of WSU's Institute of Gerontology, along with former Wayne State researcher Katerina Machacova, Ph.D., and Stewart Neufeld, Ph.D., assistant professor in the Institute of Gerontology, evaluated people with spinal cord injuries (SCI) in an effort to better understand the relationship between their self-rated physical ability to perform necessary daily activities and their SRH - the way people perceive their own health.
The study of 140 men and women with SCI found that self-rated physical ability topped injury severity as a determining factor of SRH, which may be surprising to the nondisabled.
"Many nondisabled people would think a person with SCI - confined to a wheelchair, paralyzed, etc. - would have very low ratings of health," said Lysack, an occupational therapist. "But we did not find that. A person with a disability is certainly limited in many ways, but just because they are disabled does not mean they feel their health is poor. This is important because health and disability are not the same thing. You can be living with a disability and still be in very good or even excellent health."
Adopting a psychologically distanced perspective enhances wisdom, new U-M research by assistant professor Ethan Kross shows. And getting that distance may be easier than we think.University of Michigan: Cultivating wisdom: U-M studies identify a promising way
July 11, 2011
ANN ARBOR, Mich.—Adopting a psychologically distanced perspective enhances wisdom, according to University of Michigan research just published online in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.
"Although humans strive to be wise, they often fail to do so when reasoning about issues that have profound personal implications," said U-M psychologist Ethan Kross, who co-authored the article with doctoral student Igor Grossmann. "These experiments suggest a promising way for people to reason wisely about such issues."
Previous research has shown that two common aspects of wise reasoning are: dialecticism—realizing that the world is in flux and the future is likely to change; and intellectual humility—recognizing the limits of one's own knowledge.
Society, including culture and politics
University of Michigan: People often talk about politics on blogs geared toward other topics
July 14, 2011
ANN ARBOR, Mich.—A full 25 percent of blog posts about politics occur on sites that are primarily about something else, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Michigan School of Information. And when authors post about politics, their readers reply and engage with the political content of the posts.
The researchers say they have uncovered a significant repository of political discourse that is largely being ignored. They will present their findings July 19 at the International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media in Barcelona.
Doctoral student Sean Munson and professor Paul Resnick examined 6,691 posts from a random sample of more than 8,600 blogs on Blogger.com. While most of these blogs were personal diaries or covered topics such as sports, celebrities or hobbies, about 5 percent were devoted to politics. The researchers found that the authors of many non-political blogs occasionally post about politics. These intermittent commentaries add up—so much so that they accounted for a quarter of all political posts in this large study.
"A lot of the commentary about political polarization on the Internet has focused on political websites," said Munson, who is the lead author. "That's kind of like going to a political rally and looking for diverse views. You aren't going to find them there. But you might find them at the local diner."
Wayne State University: State grant will expand and enhance Wayne State University College of Nursing simulation laboratory
July 15, 2011
The Wayne State University College of Nursing received a $200,000 grant from the Michigan Nursing Corps (MNC) to enhance its simulation technology for teaching clinical nursing skills. The college's simulation laboratories use life-sized manikins programmed to exhibit a wide range of biological responses and medical conditions. This technology allows nursing students to learn and practice clinical skills in a safe, low-stress environment before their supervised training with actual patients.
The state grant will fund a second laboratory with simulation capabilities for many trauma and emergency conditions, as well as the medical equipment and supplies needed to treat patients in these situations. In addition, some of the funds will be used for software to program the new "SimMan."
University of Michigan: Recent injuries a reminder of the need for precautions when using gasoline
U-M Trauma Burn Center saw 14 burns in the last month from misuse of gasoline and accelerants
July 13, 2011
Summer is in full swing and injuries from gasoline and other accelerants are on the rise. The University of Michigan Health System’s Trauma Burn Center saw 14 such burns in the past month.
“These kinds of injuries are avoidable and the painful consequences often last a lifetime,” says Karla Klas, B.S.N., R.N., C.C.R.P., injury prevention education specialist at the University of Michigan Trauma Burn Center.
Most of this year’s cases involved adults putting gasoline and other accelerants on bonfires and brush fires, says Klas, who also sits on the American Burn Association’s Burn Prevention Committee. Several additional cases involved kids playing around with gasoline and lighters.
Gasoline fires kill about 500 people and are responsible for more than 10,000 emergency room visits each year, according to the American Burn Association. A gallon of gas is equivalent to 20 sticks of dynamite, the National Fire Protection Association notes.
University of Michigan: U-M pediatrician strives to improve children’s health through community-based initiative
July 8, 2011
There are approximately 1,300-1,600 reported cases of Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) each year in the U.S. One out of four babies with Shaken Baby Syndrome die. The other three babies will need ongoing medical attention for the rest of their short life spans.
Faisal Mawri, M.D., FAAP, a pediatrician at U-M C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital, has developed a community-based initiative to combat this health challenge. With support from the Community Access To Child Health (CATCH) Program, a national program of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), Mawri endeavors to reduce the incidence of SBS in the Flint area.
“Shaken Baby Syndrome or Abusive Head Trauma is a form of inflicted head trauma on infants and young children. SBS represents one of the most severe forms of child abuse with up to 30% mortality among infants. Despite the severity of the injuries and enormous societal cost, SBS continue to occur frequently in our society.” Mawri said. “I believe the Flint area has a higher per capita Shaken Baby Syndrome rate than the national average.”
Wayne State University: Environmental factors predict underserved children's physical activity, Wayne State University researcher finds
July 14, 2011
DETROIT - In 2005, Jeffrey Martin, Ph.D., professor of kinesiology, health and sport studies in Wayne State University's College of Education, found that children living in underserved communities are less physically active than their higher-income counterparts. Now, in a follow-up study, Martin has found environmental factors that may affect underserved children's physical activity and fitness levels: classmate support, gender and confidence. The study was published in the June 2011 issue of Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport.
"Underserved children, such as minority children living in low-income households, do not engage in enough physical activity either in or out of school and often lack fitness compared to Caucasian children," said Martin.
To find out why, Martin tested social and physical environmental factors at underserved schools. "Examining the school environment is a particularly important consideration in underserved communities, because often children have limited equipment, and play areas are unsafe or in poor condition," Martin said.
Martin measured social factors, including how much confidence children have in their own abilities, how much confidence they have in seeking support from teachers, how much support they receive from classmates and how conducive to physical activity they perceive their school to be. Participants in the study included African American, Caucasian, Asian American, Arab American, Hispanic American and Bengali middle school children between the ages of 10 and 14.
University of Michigan: Center contributes to reduction of children in foster care in Detroit
July 12, 2011
DETROIT—More than 225 children have benefited from the Detroit Center for Family Advocacy's representation, resulting in them spending less time in foster care. In fact, not one child in a prevention case handled by the CFA has entered the foster care system.
The center, which opened two years ago on July 6, 2009, provides legal representation and social work services to low-income families to prevent unnecessary placement of children into foster care. It is funded with grants from private foundations, individuals and Wayne County Family Services, and is affiliated with the University of Michigan Law School's Child Advocacy Law Clinic.
"If we empower families by giving them the tools they need to take care of their children, then these kids can safely remain in their homes," said Vivek Sankaran, who directs the center and teaches at the U-M Law School. "If we weren't providing this work for them, nobody would be. There's nobody out there doing this type of work. There's no reason for kids who have loving families to be stuck in foster care. We can't let that happen."
Sankaran estimates that more than 400,000 children are in foster care annually in the United States. The number exceeds 16,000 in the state of Michigan.
University of Michigan: U-M applications outpace all previous records, enrollment projected to be in line with customary numbers
July 13, 2011
ANN ARBOR, Mich.—For the fifth consecutive year, the University of Michigan received a record number of applications from prospective freshmen. Overall, there were 39,570 freshman applications for academic year 2011–2012, an increase of 25 percent compared with the previous year's record of 31,613.
"The steady increase in the number of students who apply to Michigan underscores the strength of Michigan's reputation as a highly valued educational investment," said Lester Monts, senior vice provost for academic affairs.
As of the first week of June, 16,046 of the applicants were offered admission to the university's Ann Arbor campus, and 6,540 had paid the enrollment deposit, a 40.8 percent yield rate (number of students who pay deposits as a percentage of those who are offered admission). Because some students ultimately choose not to attend, enrollment deposits do not directly correspond to the number of students who enroll in the fall semester.
Wayne State University: Wayne State expands Get Schooled program to provide at-risk students with college experience
July 14, 2011
The office of Community Engagement@Wayne is expanding Get Schooled following the program's successful launch last year. This year's free program begins on July 17, 2011, and is designed to expose underrepresented student populations to higher education and career paths. Through the weeklong program, 60 eighth-and ninth-grade students from metropolitan Detroit will be spending their time at Wayne State University.
"We want to provide students with a real college experience and get them thinking about all the wonderful things they can do with a college education," said Monita Mungo, program manager at Community Engagement@Wayne and creator of Get Schooled. "In addition to exposing them to life on a college campus, we want to get the students thinking about their professional careers and what they need to do now so they can get into college."
University of Michigan: Drug Shortages Harming Patients, Increasing Costs to Hospitals
Hospital Pharmacists' Study Demonstrates Impact of Shortages
July 12, 2011
Increasing drug shortages are impacting patient care and increasing costs to the nation’s health system, according to a new study released today by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP). The study, Impact of Drug Shortages on U.S. Health Systems, was conducted in partnership with the University of Michigan Health System, and published online by the American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, ahead of the October 1 print date.
The authors, led by Burgunda V. Sweet, Pharm.D., FASHP, director of drug information and medication use policy at the University of Michigan Health System, surveyed 353 directors of pharmacy in hospitals across the country of varying sizes, to quantify the personnel resources required to manage the drug shortages, define the extent to which recent drug shortages impacted health systems nationwide, and to assess the adequacy of information resources available to manage shortages.
"The number of drugs experiencing shortages has increased considerably in the past few years with 211 new drug shortages reported in 2010," Sweet says. "Of even greater concern is that many of these drugs are critical care medications used in acute, life threatening situations. The national cost of healthcare personnel resources needed to manage these shortages amounted to over $200 million. These labor needs required to manage drug shortages were commonly met by reallocating existing staff, thereby pulling pharmacists away from other patient-care duties.”
University of Michigan: Children with public health insurance less likely to receive comprehensive primary care
U-M researchers find significant disparities between children with public and private health insurance
July 14, 2011
Children with public insurance are 22 percent less likely to receive comprehensive primary care than those with private insurance, according to new research from the University of Michigan Medical School.
Public insurance programs cover one-third of U.S. children, many of whom belong to the most vulnerable groups, including minorities, the underprivileged and those in poor health. This includes children covered by Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP).
The study, available online ahead of print in Academic Pediatrics, determined how often children with public health insurance reported having a ‘medical home,’ a model for pediatric primary care endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP).
Wayne State University: Gov. Rick Snyder, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg to discuss immigration and Michigan's economic future during New Michigan Media conference at Wayne State
July 14, 2011
New Michigan Media, a network of ethnic and minority media throughout the state, will host a conference focused on the role of immigration in the revitalization of Michigan's economy on Monday, July 18, at Wayne State University.For details on the conference, click here.
"Our campus is not only a center of intellectual inquiry and debate; we also have the most diverse student body in Michigan and play a key role in economic development," said WSU President Allan Gilmour. "This is the ideal location for a discussion on attracting a diverse population to our state to propel our economy."
Michigan Gov. Rick Snyder, who has embraced immigration as a way to repopulate Michigan and boost the economy, and who launched a Global Michigan initiative once taking office, will deliver the keynote address.
"Immigrants are an integral part of Michigan's past and we want them to be a big part of its future," Snyder said. "It is clear that immigrants with advanced college degrees can be a positive force in creating economic activity that benefits everyone. Making this state a center of opportunity for all people of exceptional talent and motivation will accelerate our reinvention of Michigan. I commend the New Michigan Media conference and Wayne State University for providing a forum for a discussion of this critical issue."
The conference, "Immigration and Michigan's Economic Future" will be the first time that Gov. Snyder has spoken at length on this topic.
Michigan State University: MSU-led project aims to expand trade for Michigan companies
July 13, 2011
EAST LANSING, Mich. — Economic development experts from Michigan State University will lead a federally funded effort to help businesses increase exports in two of Michigan’s most chronically depressed regions.
MSU’s Center for Community and Economic Development, or CCED, and regional partners will work with small and mid-sized companies in the eastern Upper Peninsula and Saginaw region to help them find new markets for their products and services. The initiative is funded by a $179,654 grant from the U.S. Economic Development Administration.
“Exporting strategies are a critical component of knowledge-based regional economic development strategies,” said Rex LaMore, director of the CCED, located on East Michigan Avenue in Lansing. “This project builds on our previous work to develop regional innovative development strategies.”